WHAT ARE AUTONOMOUS (DRIVERLESS) VEHICLES ? HOW GOOGLE'S CARS WORK

Autonomous (driverless) cars is the generic name given to cars that have the ability to move autonomously without the need for human intervention with the various sensors it has to detect its surroundings.

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The circulation of autonomous (driverless) cars on city and interurban roads has little to do with gradually replacing people. Tests of delivering from place to place, with even cargo-carrying trucks connected systems and autonomous vehicle infrastructure, also look pretty promising. At this point, the only thing humanity can think of is to ensure its own safety again. However, this obliges many improvements to autonomous cars.

Today, there are important manufacturers that come to mind when it comes to autonomous (driverless) cars; Ford, GM, Tesla, Lyft and Google are the main ones. By 2030 alone, the number of autonomous cars on the road in the United States will be more than 60 percent higher than driving cars, which is not to be underestimated, according to these companies ' calculations and predictions. That's why security comes at the forefront. Improvements are being made on different platforms to make autonomous cars safer than conventional drive cars. The R & D groups of the above mentioned companies are only doing studies on this subject.

Development Of Autonomous (Driverless) Cars

The idea of autonomous (driverless) cars was put forward by the series Black Lightning (KITT-Knight Industries Two Thousand). This idea, which emerged as science fiction, was first made concrete as a self-controlled robotic car by camera image designed by Ernst Dickmanns, a Mercedes-Benz engineer, in 1980. In 1994, the Vita-2 was able to travel 1000 kilometres an hour at 130 kilometres an hour on a 3-lane motorway in Paris with cars named Daimler Benz and Ernst Dickmanns. The situations in which he took over control of the car completely were as he changed lanes to the right and left, while the lane was empty and moving in a motorcade shape. In 1995, Dickmanns was able to drive an S-Class Mercedes-Benz to Munich-Copenhagen, a distance of 1600 kilometers between them. The car had a speed of 175 km/h and a autonomy of 95% (95% of the road taken was in control of the car. Only on the 9-kilometre road was human intervention) possessed.

Autonomous Vehicle Historical Development

In 2007, in urban racing organizations implemented by DARPA (the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency),driverless cars tried to complete a 97-kilometer course in less than 6 hours without hitting cars, road objects and pedestrians by following the road traffic rules exactly. In 2010, four autonomous vehicles traveled 13000 kilometers from Italy to China, stopping at the Expo in Shanghai to finish the competition. In October 2010, Google made a total of 230000 kilometers between San Francisco and Los Angeles.

Hardware Characteristics Of Autonomous Cars

Autonomous Vehicle Hardware

1) Radar

The car is surrounded by a 360 degree radar system to detect objects around the car. Thanks to the accident prevention devices in the front and rear bumper, the distance to any object remaining in the Blind Spot can be determined exactly by the vehicle.

2) Lane Tracking System

Cameras integrated into the car's windscreen are designed to detect the difference in contrast between the road surface, roadsides and lanes and track the lanes. If the car leaves its lane without you noticing, the car alerts the driver with vibrations it sends to the steering wheel.

4) Infrared Camera

Night vision systems direct infrared rays that cannot be seen and reflected in the human eye to the road. It detects objects hit by these rays through sensors integrated into the windshield and reflects possible objects detected on the in-car display.

5) Stereo Cameras

Cameras integrated into the windshield allow instant 3-D images of the road ahead of the vehicle, so that pedestrians can predict where they will be in the future (a few seconds later) based on their position and speed, preventing collision with any object.

6) GPS / inertial measurement unit

These sensors detect where the car is going and where it is located.

7) Wheel Coders

The speed of the car can be measured instantly by means of sensors integrated into the wheels.



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